Coal is a black or dark-brown combustible mineral substance consisting of carbonized vegetable
matter, used as a fuel. There are four main types of coal and all are found in Canada: anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite. Hot coals made of greatly heated wood, coal, or other carbon-based material that remain after, or sometimes precede a fire. Gross carbon dioxide emissions from coal usage are slightly more than those from petroleum and about double the amount from natural gas. Coal is extracted from the ground by mining, either underground by shaft mining through the seams.
                  There are two basic ways to mine coal. Surface mining is used when coal is found close to
the surface or on hillsides. This is a safe and economical method used for over half of the coal mining. Underground or deep mining is used to extract coal lying deep beneath the surface or on seams exposed on hillsides. Extensive safety precautions are taken to protect miners. Modern machinery has made deep mining safer and faster than ever before. Deep mining is carried out by either continuous mining or long wall mining.
                  Coal is the world's most abundant fossil fuel - more plentiful than oil and natural gas. It is second
only to oil as a source of energy that we use. Coal is widely used because it's easily obtained, there's lots of it, it's well distributed throughout the world, and it has high energy content. Canada exports about 28 million tonnes of coal annually to more than 20 countries. Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases.




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