The newspaper serving Frostbite Falls, Minnesota, the home of Rocky and Bullwinkle, is the Picayune Intellegence.


Rhode Island is the smallest state with the longest name. The official name, used on all state documents, is "Rhode Island and Providence Plantations."


Isaac Asimov is the only author to have a book in every Dewey-decimal category.

Issac Asimov


The Eisenhower interstate system requires that one mile in every five must be straight. These straight sections are usable as airstrips in times of war or other emergencies.

U.S. $5 BILL

The numbers '172' can be found on the back of the U.S. $5 dollar bill in the bushes at the base of the Lincoln Memorial.


In the early days of the telephone, operators would pick up a call and use the phrase, "Well, are you there?". It wasn't until 1895 that someone suggested answering the phone with the phrase "number please?"


President Kennedy was the fastest random speaker in the world with upwards of 350 words per minute.

John. F. Kennedy


It is believed that Shakespeare was 46 around the time that the King James Version of the Bible was written. In Psalms 46, the 46th word from the first word is shake and the 46th word from the last word is spear.

William Shakespeare


The Bugatti Veyron Super Sport EB 16.4 with a top speed of 267 mph, 0-60 in 2.4 seconds, is the fastest car in the world.  The car is developed by Volkswagen Group and has a base price of $2,400,000.  On July 2010, the car was certified by the German government and the Guinness Book of World Records as the fastest production vehicle during the test drive performed by Pierre Henri Raphane, the Bugatti's official driver.

The Bugatti Veyron Super Sport EB


Barbara Milicent Roberts is the full name of Barbie.  Barbie was initially the idea of Ruth Handler, the wife of Elliot who was a co-founder of the Mattel toy company.  The company that manufactured the fashion doll.  Barbie was revised from a German doll called Bild Lilli.  Barbie was launched on March 9, 1959 during the American International Toy Fair in New York and this date became Barbie’s official birthday.

A Barbie Doll


Born on December 10, 1982, at the age of 29, Sultan K√∂sen is the tallest living man with the height of 8 ft 3 in.  He also holds this title with the Guinness World Record.  He lives in Mardin, Turkey with his parents, a sister and three brothers, all of normal height.  He was not able to finish school because of his extraordinary size, so he works as a part-time farmer.  He enjoys running errand with his mom as a tall guy; he likes changing the light bulbs and hanging the curtains.

Sultan Kosen


The Liver is the largest internal organ of the body. It has an average weight of 3.5 pounds and is soft and pinkish-brown in color.  It is covered by a membrane called visceral peritoneum which lessens the friction with the other organ. The main function of the liver is to cleanse the blood.  It detoxifies about 600 liters of blood daily. If the liver is not functioning properly all and every foods can be poisonous to the body.

The Liver


Did you know the first of may has been an important day throughout history. Curiously though, the reasons for its importance have changed several times over the years.

The Celts- the first pre-historic people to have appeared in Europe- celebrated their new year on May 1. They called it the feast of Beltine (after Belenos their sun-god). According to Celtic lore which has been recorded in "The Books Of Invasions", the Greek prince Partholon came to live with his people among the Celts on a first of May.

The Saxon king, Alfred the great was the first to introduce the 40-hour working week dividing a day into three parts of eight hours each (for work, sleep and leisure). He did this on a first of May.

On may 1, 1886, 3 1/2 lakh American workers demonstrated for a 40-hour week and won their demand.

On May 1, 1946, the first of May came to be declared international labour day.

In Maharshtra (India), May 1 is also celebrated as Maharashtra Day for the state came into being on this day in 1960.


Can you stop after eating just one crisp, crunchy potato chip? No, impossible! For no one can resist potato chips! How they came into being makes an interesting story.

Sometime in 1885, a chef in a New York resturant created this delicacy, accidentally and in a fit of anger. One evening a patron kept insisting that the fried potatoes were neither thin nor crisp enough. In a rage, the chef dropped the paper-thin slices of potato into the nearest pail of ice water. He forgot all about these until another customer asked for them. Hurriedly, he took the chips out from the pail and threw them into a pan of boiling oil. To his astonishment the fried, salted chips were greatly relished. This was how one of the world's favourite snacks were born.

Potatoes were brought to India by the Portuguese in the early 17th century. They started potato cultivation along the west coast where they were called Batata. The British also introduced potatoes to Bengal where they were known as Alu. Now potatoes are cultivated throughout India. Although full of starch, the potato contains protein and vitamin C. Contrary to popular belief, the potato is non-fattering and low in calories. However, vitamin C is lost when potatoes are deep-fried to make potato chips.

Potato Chips


In the 6th century the Romans used tiny brushes or reeds dipped in crude ink for writing. They called these "Penicullus", or "little tails" from which the word "pencil" is derived. 

In 1564, a violent storm blew down a large tree in Cumberland, England. Later a mass of black, mineral-like substance was exposed where the tree's huge roots had been. It was black lead or graphite. The local shepherds used pieces to brand their sheep. But enterprising townsmen began cutting it into sticks and sold them as "marking sticks" on London streets. These sticks however, had two defects. They stained the hand and broke easily. To prevent the staining of the hand, a string was tied around the stick.

In 1761, Kasper Faber, a chemist, made pencils from powdered lead, sulphur and antimony. He mixed them with resins, which prevented the pencil stick from breaking. That is how they came to be called lead pencils. Later, in 1970, with the encouragement of Napoleon Bonaparte, Nicolas Jacques Conte, worked on a marking stick which could withstand rough use and vary in gradation. He added clay to inferior graphite and fired the mix in a kiln. 

But the credit for the first modern pencil goes to William Monroe who made a machine that could turn out narrow wooden slabs, 15 or 18 cms long. He glued the two sections of wood round the cylinder of moulded graphite to produce cheap pencils. The standard 18cm pencil of today can draw a line 56 km. long, write atleast 45,000 words and survive 17 sharpenings down to a 5cm butt! Today the world uses more than 300 different kinds of pencils.

Pencils Today


The elephant is the largest land animal existent today. yet if it were to come face to face with a dinosaur, it would stand only as high as the dinosaur's shoulder. can you imagine how large dinosaur's must have been?

Dinosaurs were great reptiles that lived at a time when there were no men on earth- between 225 and 65 million years ago. Man first appeared about million years ago. The biggest of them all, Brachiosaurus, weighed 80 tons- as much as 8 fully-loaded trucks, while Diplodocus, measuring 26 metres from its nose to tail, was the longest dinosaur. Though both were land animals, they spent much of their time underwater because water supported their enormous weight.

Though most dinosaurs were plant-eaters, some lived solely on flesh. The most ferocious flesh-eater was the Tyrannosaurus. No other animal of his time could face this six- metre tall beast. His jaws alone, when opened, were taller than a man's height. One bite of food for a Tryannosaurus could feed a human family of four for one whole month!

Scientists have been closely studying the habits of the Crocodile and the Komodo Dragon found in the islands of Java. These animals, they think, may be direct descendants of the great reptiles that once roamed this earth.


Venus is considered as the “Earth’s sister planet” because of its similar structure.  It has the same size, gravity and composition with our planet.  It was once believed to have oceans however it was dried out due to very high temperature.  While all the planets in the solar system rotate in a counter-clockwise direction, Venus is the only planet to rotate clockwise.

Venus Planet


Measuring about 21 square kilometers and with a population of 9,265, Nauru is considered as the smallest island country in the world.  “Pleasant Island” was its original name.  It is an oval-shaped island located in the western Pacific Ocean.  The island is surrounded by a sandy beach and coral reefs.  “Nauru” may came from the word Naurua, meaning “I go to the beach.”

Nauru Island


The hummingbird is the smallest bird weighing about 0.056 ounces and measuring around 3 inches.  It’s interesting that this bird can fly backwards.  Apart from insects, the hummingbirds have the fastest metabolism of all the animals.  They can also drink nectar more than their own weight in a day.  The average lifespan of this smallest bird is around three to five years.  A relatively longer life than the most smaller mammals.

A Hummingbird

Queen Bee

The queen bee is a female, mother of most bees in the honey bee colony.  When this bee is still a larva, it is particularly selected and specifically fed to be a maturely mated bee.  This young larva is especially fed with royal jelly from the heads of its bee workers.  A regular worker bee is only served some royal jelly for the first few days while the queen bee is continuously fed with royal jelly.  It will soon become a sexually mature bee because of this unique diet.  A queen bee lays about 1500 eggs a day.

The Queen Bee


The first Christmas tree began in Geismar, Germany in 722, when St. Boniface cut down a sacred tree of Thor in where later a fir tree grew up at the base of that oak tree.  The tree grew with its branches pointing to heaven.  It was then considered as a holy tree and has been said to be the first Christmas tree.  Tannenbaum is a German word for “fir tree” which also means “Christmas Tree”.

A Christmas Tree

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The Leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy is world-famous. But very few people know about the shaking minarets of Ahmedabad!

Built in the 15th century, these minarets of Siddhi Bashir's mosque are unique. They are twenty metres high and each minaret has three storeys with carved stone balconies. When the top portion of one minaret is shaken, the vibrations travel down the hollow tower and pass through the arch to the other minaret, moving it in the opposite direction. A flat terrace joins the two minarets and serves as a bridge.

These minarets are shaken many times a day for the benefit of sight-seers who climb up the spiralling steps to reach the top. As one minaret starts swinging back and forth, the other, a distance away, also sways rhythmically. And this has been going on for over 400 years!

The Shaking Minarets Of Ahmedabad


Pluto is the farthest known planet in our solar system and was discovered only in 1930. Very little is known about this icy world. Its one year equals to 248 of our years. Unlike the outer giants- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune- Pluto is a dwarf, not much bigger than Mercury.

After it's meeting with Neptune, Voyager II will leave the solar system without meeting Pluto. So it will be quite a few decades before we know more about this remote little member of our sun's family.

Planet Pluto


Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. It is so huge that its mass is greater than that of all planets put together. Jupiter's diameter is 11 times that of the earth and its bulk is 318 times heavier. Despite its great distance (370 million miles) from the sun, it is still the second most brilliant planet in our sky, after Venus. This great planet is aptly named after Jupiter, the king of the god's in the Greek pantheon. To hindus, it is guru, associated with benevolence, riches and plenty.

There is one aspect in which the gigantic Jupiter dwarfs itself when compared with the other planets; it has the shortest days, lasting only nine hours and 51 minutes. Buth this also makes it the fastest planet to rotate on its own axis! Jupiter's surface is by and large gaseous and as a result of its tremendous speed of rotation, its surface features appear to be changing continuously.

Jupiter has an atmosphere made up mainly of hydrogen and helium. Oxygen has not yet been detected. There are some scientists whom think that life may exist in the upper atmosphereic layers of this planet of violent storms and changing features.

Planet Jupiter


With the weight of up to 180 metric tons and around 100 feet wide, the Blue whale is the World’s largest animal. They are typically pale gray-blue in color. An adult blue whale feeds mostly on krill and can consume up to 40 million krill in a day. That’s about 8000 pounds of krill per day.

A Blue Whale


The human skull is ordinarily made up of 22 bones. The skull is divided in two parts the cranium and the mandible. The cranium is composed of eight plate-like bones while the mandible part are consist of fourteen facial bones .


When William Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781, it became the first planet to be discovered with a telescope. Unlike the inner planets and Jupiter and Saturn, Uranus was not in ancient times. Although it is the third largest planet, it is not easily visible to the naked eye because it is twice as far away from the earth as Saturn. Like Jupiter, Uranus is made up mostly of gas and like Saturn, it is circled by faintly visible rings. It takes Uranus 84 years to complete one revolution round the sun. Because of its greatly tilted axis of rotation, Uranus has the longest "summers" and "winters"- each lasting 42 years!

Uranus has five moons of its own. Voyager II, the spacecraft that visited Mars, Jupiter and Saturn earlier, photographed Uranus from close quarters in January 1986.

Planet Uranus


After the discovery of Uranus, astronomers were surprised to find that some unseen force seemed to "pull" the planet away from its path round the sun. It was only in 1846, that this "unseen force" was identified in the form of Neptune. It was Neptune's gravitational force that tugged at Uranus.

Neptune is only slightly smaller in size than Uranus and in several ways appears to be similar to it. Indeed, that's why two are referred to as the "Twins" of our solar system. Neptune is also largely made up of gas. It has two moons of it's own. Neptune takes 165 earth-years to make one revolution round the sun. Therefore, it will not be back in the position where it was discovered (in 1846) until the year 2011. Voyager II reached Neptune on August 25, 1989.

Planet Neptune


The Vatican City is the smallest state in the world. It is only around 110 acres and has a population of approximately 800. It is considered as the spiritual center of the Roman Catholics church. The city is ruled by the Bishop of Rome which is the Pope.

The Vatican City


The “Rafflesia arnoldii” is the largest flower in the world. The flower is named after Sir Stamford Raffles and Dr. Joseph Arnold who first discovered the plant in May 1818. It was known as the “corpse flower” because of its strong odor similar to rotting flesh. It weighs up to 24 pounds and around 3 feet wide. Once the flower blooms, it will only last for five to seven days.

Rafflesia Arnoldii


The first card ever used for purchasing purposes was traced way back in 1930’s. It was a rectangular sheet metal known as the “Charga-Plate”, developed by the Farrington Manufacturing Company. However, the customers were not allowed to bring the card home and were kept in the store. The store will only use it every time a regular customer will make a purchase from their store.

In 1950, Ralph Schneider and Frank McNamara of Diner’s club developed a charge card that can be used in multiple restaurants in New York. This was considered as the first “plastic money”. It was not until, in 1970 though that the conception of magnetic strips with customer’s information on credit cards was applied. Nowadays, very credit cards has identifying number which carries the customer’s name, billing address and other personal details which speeds up the store operations.

A Charga Plate


The average human being can blink 10 times per minute. That is approximately 15, 000 times in a day. While infants blink with an average of one or two times per minute. This is because the infants’ eyelid openings are much smaller compared to adults. As your age increases, the more you blink your eye. This is because adults more often exposed to foreign matter that could enter and irritate the eyes. By blinking, we spread moisture through the eye to wash the irritants away.


As a rule, 66 percent of people keep their eyes closed while kissing. The rest take pleasure in watching the emotions run the gamut on the faces of their partners.


The tomb is the central focus of the entire complex of the Taj Mahal. This large, white marble structure stands on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical building with an iwan (an arch- shaped doorway) topped by a large dome and finial. Like most Mughal tombs, the basic elements are Persian in origin.

The interior chamber of the Taj Mahal steps far beyond traditional decorative elements. Here, the inlay work is not pietra dura, but a lapidary of precious and semiprecious gemstones. The inner chamber is an octagon with the design allowing for entry from each face, although only the door facing the garden to the south is used.

Taj Mahal appears pink in the morning, white in the day and changes its color to golden in the moon light. The pillars surrounding Taj Mahal are slightly tilted outwards so that in the event of an earthquake they will fall away from the tomb. An identical Taj Mahal was supposed to be built in black marble instead of white. The base of it can still be seen across the river. Over 1,000 elephant were used to transport building materials during the construction. In all, 28 types of precious and semi-precious stones were inlaid into the white marble. The Taj Mahal in India is perfectly symmetrical, except for one thing. The two tombs inside are not equal in size. This is because the male tomb has to be larger than the female tomb.

The Taj Mahal


The history of robots has its roots as far back as ancient myths and legends. Modern concept were begun to be developed when the industrial revolution allowed the use of more complex mechanics and the subsequent introduction of electricity made it possible to power machines with small compact motors.

There are many types of robots some of them are Mobile Robots, Rolling Robots, Remote control Robots, Virtual Robots and Beam robots. Beam Robots looks remarkably like insects. Insects are easy to build in mechanical form and their limited behavior can also be programmed easily. A virtual robot does not exist in real life they are just the computer programs. Remote control robots are used in complex tasks they are controlled by remote.

Robots have revolutionized the modern world and are now used in almost every field from medicine factory to the space they are in use everywhere and lot of work is going on in the field of robotics because future belongs to the robots as the time passes robots are becoming more powerful, intelligent and small.

A Robot


A windmill is a structure or machine that converts wind into usable energy through the rotation of a wheel made up of adjustable blades. Windmills are fairly simple: Wind turns the blades, the blades turn an electric generator, and the electric generator produces electricity.

Traditionally, the energy generated by a windmill has been used to grind grain into flour. Windmills are designed by skilled craftsmen and can be constructed on site using hand tools. Windmills were first used in Persia, in modern-day Iran. Windmills were also traditionally used in Holland and in 19th- and 20th-century America.

Windmills developed steadily over the centuries and achieved their most prominence in Europe during the eighteenth century. They were largely replaced as a power generating structure when steam power was harnessed during the nineteenth century. Today, windmill technology is experiencing a renaissance and the wind turbine promises to be an important alternative to fossil fuels in the future.

A Windmill


Solar energy is a term for describing a range of methods for obtaining energy from the sun. Many people immediately think about solar panels when hearing solar energy but wind, biomass and hydro power are all forms of solar energy.

The production of oxygen and food is impossible without solar energy. Abundant supply of sunlight is highly beneficial for the farmers. When compared to other forms of energies, solar energy is friendlier for the environment. It is a resource that is renewable and at present, we are using less than 0.1% energy from sunlight to meet our heating, transportation and power needs. It is however possible to meet all our energy needs with this cheap, renewable resource.

There are two types of solar energy- active solar energy and passive solar energy. Active solar energy is taken from sunlight by using some active systems. Passive solar energy is beneficial in converting the heat without using any other energy sources.

Solar energy is successfully being used for cooking, cooling, heating, communications, driving space craft, lighting and many more purposes. Even fossil fuels are forms of stored solar energy. On average, solar energy demand has grown 30% annually in the past 15 years. Solar energy is becoming more and more popular for reasons of cost, climate change and global legislation and pressure.


Tobacco is a green, leafy plant that is grown in warm climates. After it is picked, it is dried, ground up, and used in different ways. It can be smoked in a cigarette, pipe, or cigar. It can be chewed (called smokeless tobacco or chewing tobacco) or sniffed through the nose (called snuff).

There are more than one billion smokers in the world. Globally, use of tobacco products is increasing, although it is decreasing in high-income countries. Almost half of the world's children breathe air polluted by tobacco smoke. The epidemic is shifting to the developing world. More than 80% of the world's smokers live in low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco use kills 5.4 million people a year - an average of one person every six seconds - and accounts for one in 10 adult deaths worldwide. Tobacco kills up to half of all
users. It is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of deaths in the world.

100 million deaths were caused by tobacco in the 20th century. If current trends continue, there will be up to one billion deaths in the 21st century. Unchecked, tobacco-related deaths will increase to more than eight million a year by 2030, and 80% of those deaths will occur in the developing world.



Wave motion transfers energy from one point to another, often with no permanent displacement of the particles of the medium—that is, with little or no associated mass transport. A disturbance on the surface of a liquid body, as the sea or a lake, in the form of a moving ridge or swell is also called wave. One type of wave is a mechanical
wave, which propagates through a medium in which the substance of this medium is deformed.
The deformation reverses itself owing to restoring forces resulting from its deformation. Another type of wave can travel through a vacuum, e.g. electromagnetic radiation (including visible light, ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, gamma rays, X-rays, and radio waves).

Wave power is particularly beneficial for coastal regions where waves are strong but is mainly used further into the sea with large scale wave farms which draws energy from the currents and tidal waves. Wave power is not dissimilar to wind power, the more wind we have the better the waves will be in addition to the natural current. Wave power generators are inherently ecologically-friendly. Without a need for fossil fuels, and
with no harmful chemicals released, wave power stations such as the “Duck” and the “Sea Snake”
do not pollute our atmosphere or deplete the earth’s supply of non-renewable fuels. They are also quiet in operation with many turbines emitting less noise than a vacuum cleaner, so there is practically no noise
pollution either



Wildfire is a highly flammable composition, difficult to extinguish when ignited, formerly used in warfare. Wildfires occur on every continent except Antarctica. Fossil records and human history contain accounts of wildfires, as wildfires can occur in periodic intervals. Wildfires can cause extensive damage, both to property and human life, but they also have various beneficial effects on wilderness areas. Some plant species depend on the effects of fire for growth and reproduction

Many fires are started as a result of debris burning. Often these fires are rekindled, in some cases several days after the fire is thought to be out, when air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity come together to create conditions favorable for fires to burn and spread. Wildfires also caused due to lightning occur at a frequency of three to five per year. Since lightning is usually associated with rain, such wildfires do not spread over large areas. Very often, underground coal fires cause wildfires. Underground coal fires are the slow and
flameless forms of combustion, below the earth's surface. Such fires continue to burn for many years,
resulting in the release of toxic fumes and destruction of vegetation and human property.

Immediately put out all smoking materials and other open flames. Do not operate lights, appliances, telephones, or cell phones. Flames or sparks from these sources can trigger an explosion or a fire, if gas smells.



Water is the most important ingredient for life mean to say life is impossible without water. Frequent use of water keeps us healthy and fresh and do our daily tasks in a mire better way. Many of the people are unaware of the proper way of drinking water as this thing may cause harm to our body so always drink water as recommended by the biology.

Roughly 70 percent of an adult’s body is made up of water. At birth, water accounts for approximately 80 percent of an infant’s body weight. Drinking too much water too quickly can lead to water intoxication. Water intoxication occurs when water dilutes the sodium level in the bloodstream and causes an imbalance of water in the brain. Water intoxication is most likely to occur during periods of intense athletic performance.

Water dissolves more substances than any other liquid. Wherever it travels, water carries chemicals, minerals, and nutrients with it. Soft drinks, coffee, and tea, while made up almost entirely of water, also contain caffeine. Caffeine can act as a mild diuretic, preventing water from traveling to necessary locations in the body. Pure water (solely hydrogen and oxygen atoms) has a neutral pH of 7, which is neither acidic nor basic.

Somewhere between 70 and 75 percent of the earth’s surface is covered with water. The total amount of water on the earth is about 326 million cubic miles of water. Of all the water on the earth, humans can used only about three tenths of a percent of this water. Such usable water is found in groundwater aquifers, rivers, and freshwater lakes.


TABLET PC (Personal Computer)

A tablet personal computer or tablet PC is a tablet-sized computer that also has the key features of a full-size personal computer. A tablet PC is essentially a small laptop computer, equipped with a rotatable touch screen as an additional input device, and running a standard PC operating system like Windows or Linux. Tablet PC, a notebook or slate-shaped mobile computer, first introduced by Pen Computing in the early 90s with their Pen Go Tablet Computer and popularized by Microsoft.

Mobility is considered to be one of the best advantages of the tablet PC. Both light and small tablet PC gives you an opportunity to work in absolutely any situation. You have to know that all the tablet PCs use touch screen technology. This technology allows inputting data on the screen you are working on. And this is one of many reasons why these devices are so small. To type you have to handwrite with a stylus or use a virtual keyboard.

Tablet PCs are regular PCs. Some developers and users still think that Tablet PCs somehow run on a special operating system, such as Windows CE, which is not the case. (Fortunately, the group that holds that belief seems to be shrinking.) The first generation of Tablet PCs (pre- Windows Vista) runs on a special version of Windows XP, called the Windows XP Tablet PC Edition. This is a super-set of Windows XP, which means that absolutely everything Windows XP has to offer is also available on Tablet PCs. In addition, there are components that are specific to Tablet PCs, such as Digital Ink collection components, and also some Tablet PC- specific applications, such as Windows Journal.

Tablet PC


Tsunami is an unusually large sea wave produced by a seaquake or undersea volcanic eruption. Some meteorological conditions, such as deep depressions that cause tropical cyclones, can generate a storm surge, called a meteotsunami, which can raise tides several meters above normal levels. The displacement comes from low atmospheric pressure within the centre of the depression. As these storm surges reach shore, they may resemble (though are not) tsunamis, inundating vast areas of land.

Tsunami (pronounced soo-NAH-mee) is a Japanese word. Tsunamis are fairly common in Japan and many thousands of Japanese have been killed by them in recent centuries. Tsunami waves can be very long (as much as 60 miles, or 100 kilometers) and be as far as one hour apart. They are able to cross entire oceans without great loss of energy. An earthquake generates a tsunami if it is of sufficient force and there is violent movement of the earth causing substantial and sudden displacement of a massive amount of water.

The best defense against any tsunami is early warning that allows people to seek higher ground. The Pacific Tsunami Warning System, a coalition of 26 nations headquartered in Hawaii, maintains a web of seismic equipment and water level gauges to identify tsunamis at sea. Here are some measures should be taken to avoid trouble if caught in a tsunami:
- When in coastal areas, stay alert for tsunami warnings.
- Plan an evacuation route that leads to higher ground.
- Never stay near shore to watch a tsunami come in.
- Do not return to an affected coastal area until authorities say it is safe.

A Tsunami


Tornado is a localized, violently destructive windstorm occurring over land, especially in the Middle West, and characterized by a long, funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground and made visible by condensation and debris. Various types of tornadoes include the land spout, multiple vortex tornado, and waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel- shaped wind current, connecting to a large cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud. They are generally classified as non-super cellular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water.

Tornadoes form in unusually violent thunderstorms when there is sufficient instability and wind shear present in the lower atmosphere. Instability refers to unusually warm and humid conditions in the lower atmosphere, and possibly cooler than usual conditions in the upper atmosphere. Wind shear in this case refers to the wind direction changing, and the wind speed increasing, with height. An example would be a southerly wind of 15 mph at the surface, changing to a southwesterly or westerly wind of 50 mph at 5,000 feet altitude. The
intense spinning of a tornado is partly the result of the updrafts and downdrafts in the thunderstorm.

Some steps can be taken to protect from their destruction, but sometimes tornadoes are so powerful that even these steps can be ineffective. These are usually huge F5 tornadoes, and, thankfully, they are rare. Open the windows of houses to equalize pressure within the house. Basements or tornado cellars are the best shelters in case of tornado.

A Tornado


Sugarcane is a tall grass, of tropical and warm regions, having a stout, jointed stalk, and constituting the chief source of sugar. Sugarcane is an important industrial crop of tropical and subtropical regions and is cultivated on close to 20 million hectares in more then 90 countries.

It has a low glycemic index, which helps in keeping the body fit and healthy overall. Drinking sugar cane juice has been studied to be advantageous in treating and preventing colds, flu and sore throat. Sugar cane does not contain simple sugars so diabetics can safely add them to their diet. It is also considered as an excellent source of energy as it contains glucose that is stored as glycogen and is burned by the muscles or energy. They serve as a healthier alternative to drinking carbonated drinks and sodas.

Sugarcane is considered as one of the best converters of solar energy into biomass and sugar. It is a rich source of food (sucrose, jaggery and syrup), fiber (cellulose), fodder (green leaves and tops of cane plant, bagasse, and molasses and to some extent press mud), fuel and chemical. The main by-products are bagasse, molasses and press mud. Baggasse is traditionally used as captive fuel in sugar factory boiler for raising steam required for the generation of power and driving the prime movers. Molasses contains about 30-35 per cent sugar and 15–20 per cent reducing sugars. Thus, the total sugar content of molasses is 45–55 per cent. It is by virtue of this total content that molasses is a valuable raw material for the production of many value-added products. The main products that can be produced from it on commercial scale are ethyl alcohol, citric acid,
lactic acid, cattle feed, oxalic acid, bakers yeast, mono sodium glutamate, torula yeast, lysine, acetone-butanol-alcohol.



The potato was first originated in the southern region of Peru. Potato was first introduced in Europe by Spain in 1536 and it was claimed that Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada was the first to introduce the potato in Europe. The world’s largest potato producing country is China. The potato is considered as the fourth most important crop in addition to corn, wheat and rice.

The potato contains vitamins and minerals, as well as an assortment of phytochemicals, such as carotenoids and natural phenols. In terms of nutrition, the potato is best known for its carbohydrate content. The predominant form of this carbohydrate is starch. Potato is additionally wealthy with vitamin C.

The potato is versatile because you can bake it, boil it, mash it, and fry it and even you can make pancakes of potatoes. Potatoes have some positive effects on human health: they’re sensible against colon cancer, improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, increase satiety.



Silk is the soft, lustrous fiber obtained as a filament from the cocoon of the silkworm. Silk is strong, flexible, and fibrous, and is essentially a long continuous strand of protein. It is widely used to make thread and fabric. According to Confucius, it was in 2640 B.C. that the Chinese princess Xi Ling Shi was the first to reel a cocoon of silk which, legend also has it, had dropped into her cup of tea. From that historic moment, the Chinese
discovered the life cycle of the silk worm and for the next 3000 years were to keep their monopoly of silk.

Most of the silk is woven into rebozos (shawls) with one or more members of the family involved in the spinning, weaving, and dyeing processes. Electric spinners and floor looms have been introduced later to enhance the spinning and weaving process, but many people, particularly the older women, still prefer to spin by hand using a malacate and weave using a back strap loom.

Besides its luxurious softness and lustrous beauty, there are various other benefits of silk that other fabrics, whether natural or man-made, simply cannot match. These advantages of silk have rightly earned silk its reputation as the queen of fabrics. Silk is warm and cozy in winter and comfortably cool when temperatures rise. Its natural temperature-regulating properties give silk this paradoxical ability to cool and warm simultaneously.

Silk Today


Chilies come in all shapes, sizes and colors ranging from tiny pointed extremely hot, birds’ eye chili to the large mild fleshy peppers like the Anaheim. Indigenous to Central and South America and the West Indies, they have been cultivated there for thousands of years before the Spanish conquest, which eventually introduced them to the rest of the world. Mexican cooking is one of the worlds oldest cuisines, the explorers of the New World brought back the tomatoes and peppers, red hot chilies, avocados, various beans, vanilla and chocolate, these flavors were to change the flavor of Europe.

Several cultivars of chilies grow all around the world. The chili plant is native to Central American region where it was used as spicy ingredient in Mexican cuisines for several thousand years. It was introduced to the rest of the world by Spanish and Portuguese explorers during 16th and 17th centuries and now grown widely in many parts of the world as an important commercial crop.

Chilies are loaded with vitamin A, a potent antioxidant and boost to the immune system. As the pods mature and darken high quantities of vitamin C are gradually replaced with beta carotene and the capsaicin levels are at their highest. Due to these capsaicin levels, some believe that eating chilies may have an extra thermal affect, temporarily speeding up the metabolic rate, hence burning off calories at a faster rate. Whatever, you certainly
do sweat and actually cool down in hot climates as sweat evaporates. Your nose runs, your head clear ... you can breathe! And with that extra flow of saliva, the gastric juices also flow. The alkaloids from the capsaicin
stimulate the action of stomach and intestine improving the whole digestion process!

Red Chillies


Rice is the starchy seeds or grain of an annual marsh grass, Oryza sativa, cultivated in warm climates and used for food. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. Rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain. Although its parent species are native to South Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide. The major producers of Rice
are China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Philippines, Brazil, Japan, Pakistan and

Methods of cultivating rice are not the same for all localities. It differs greatly in different localities. However, but in most Asian countries like Pakistan and India, the traditional hand methods of cultivating and harvesting rice are still practiced. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the
young seedlings. This simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and
channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil.

Eating rice is extremely beneficial for health, just for the fact that it does not contain harmful fats, cholesterol or sodium. It forms an integral part of balanced diet. It abounds in resistant starch, which reaches the bowel in undigested form. It aids the growth of useful bacteria for normal bowel movements. It is rich in insoluble fiber that can possibly protect against many types of cancers.



Aeroplane, or aircraft, heavier-than-air vehicle, mechanically driven and fitted with fixed wings that support it in flight through the dynamic action of the air.

The airplane has six main parts fuselage, wings, stabilizer (or tail plane), rudder, one or more engines, and landing gear. The fuselage is the main body of the machine, customarily streamlined in form. It usually contains control equipment, and space for passengers and cargo. The wings are the main supporting surfaces. Modern airplanes are monoplanes (airplanes with one wing) and may be high-wing, mid-wing, or low-wing (relative to the bottom of the fuselage). At the trailing edge of the wings are auxiliary hinged surfaces known as ailerons that are used to
gain lateral control and to turn the airplane.

Aero plane is one of the newest and fastest means of transport. Only spacecraft travel faster than aero planes. A modern jet transport plane, or airliner, can carry a heavy load of passengers and cargo across Europe in less than 5 hours. It can fly halfway around the world--from London to Sydney in less than 24 hours. Passengers can ride in comfort from 9,000 to 13,000 meters above the ground. On many long flights, they can watch a film or listen to music. The largest jets can hold nearly 500 passengers. Rocket planes, the world's fastest aero planes, have been flown at speeds faster than 7,240 kilometers per hour.

An Aeroplane